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Tuesday, March 20, 2007

Kenapa Babi tak boleh di makan? 

Kenapa khinzir tak boleh dimakan (English dan diterjemahkan)

You want to know?? Good scientific explanation
( Adakah anda ingin tahu. Satu penjelasan saintifik yang bagus)

Bob: Tell me why is it that a Muslim is very particular about the words Halaal and Haraam; what do they mean? (terangkan kepada saya kenapa orang Islam ni sangat mementingkan dan begitu teliti dengan istilah 'Halal dan juga Haram'; apa sebenarnya maksud perkataan-pekataan tersebut)

Yunus: That which is permissible is termed Halaal and that which is not permissible is termed Haraam and it is the Quran which draws the distinction between the two.
(Halal bermaksud perkara yang dibenarkan dalam Islam manakala haram pula bermaksud perkara yang tidak dibenarkan dalam Islam dan al Quranlah yang telah menggariskan perbezaan diantara keduanya.)

Bob: Can you give me an example?
(Boleh awak beri saya contoh?)

Yunus: Yes, Islam has prohibited blood of any type. You will agree that a chemical analysis of blood shows that it contains an abundance of uric acid, a chemical substance which can be injurious to human health.
(Ya. Islam telah melarang memakan apa jua jenis darah kecuali darah ikan dan belalang kalau tak silap saya). Kamu tentu akan setuju bahawa satu analisis kimia terhadap darah menunjukkan ia mengandungi banyak asid urik,iaitu satu bahan kimia yang merbahaya pada
kesihatan manusia.)

Bob: You're right about the toxic nature of uric acid, in the human being it is excreted as a waste product and in fact we are told that 98% of the body's uric acid is extracted from the blood by the kidneys and removed through urination.
(Kamu benar berkaitan dengan toksid semulajadi yang terkandung dalam asid urik ini.Di dalam badan manusia, ia digolongkan sebagai bahan kumuh/buangan , malahan kami diberitahu bahawa 98% dari asid urik ini diekstrak/ditapis daripada darah oleh buah
pinggang dan dibuang melalui sistem perkumuhan)

Yunus: Now I think that you'll appreciate the special prescribed method of animal slaughter in Islam.
(Sekarang saya rasa kamu akan dapat merasai betapa beruntungnya satu cara istimewa dalam Islam berkenaan penyembelihan binatang.)

Bob: What do you mean?
(Apa maksud kamu)

Yunus: You see, the wielder of the knife, whilst taking the name of the 'Almighty', makes an incision through the jugular veins, leaving all other veins and organs intact. (maksudnya, ketajaman pisau, menyembelih dengan menggunakan nama Allah yang Maha Besar, menyembelih pada urat leher, ini semua akan menyebabkan organ-organ penting lain pada haiwan tidak rosak)

Bob: I see, this causes the death of the animal by total loss of blood from the body, rather than an injury to any vital organ.
(jadi kematian pada haiwan adalah melalui cara hilangnya darah secara keseluruhan daripada tubuh haiwan tersebut dan bukannya dengan mencederakan pada organ-organ penting yang lain)

Yunus: Yes, were the organs, example the heart, the liver, or the brain crippled or damaged, the animal could die immediately and its blood would congeal in its veins and would eventually permeate the flesh. This implies that the animal flesh would be permeated and contaminated with uric acid and therefore very poisonous; only today did our dieticians realize such a thing.
(ya, sebagai contoh, sekiranya organ jantung, hati, atau otak retak atau rosak, binatang itu akan mati dengan cepat dan darahnya akan menjadi kental dalam salur darah dan ini secara perlahan lahan akan menyebabkan ia meresap ke dalam daging. Ini akan menyebabkan daging diresapi dan tercemar dengan asid urik menyebabkan ia menjadi amat beracun dan baru sekarang pakar-pakar diet menyedari akan hal ini.)

Bob: Again, while on the topic of food; Why do Muslims condemn the eating of pork or ham or any foods related to pigs or swine.
(Bercakap mengenai makanan ni,kenapa orang Islam menolak untuk memakan daging khinzir atau sebarang makanan yang berkaitan dengannya)

Yunus: Actually, apart from the Quran prohibiting the consumption of pork,bacon (pig flesh); in fact the Bible too in Leviticus chapter 11,verse 8, regarding swine it says, "of their flesh (of the swine, another name for pig) shall you not eat, and of their carcass you shall not touch;they are unclean to you. Further, did you know that a pig cannot be slaughtered at the neck for it does not have a neck; that is according to its natural anatomy.A Muslim reasons that if the pig was to be slaughtered and fit for human consumption the Creator would have provided it with a neck. Nonetheless, all that aside, I am sure you are well informed about the harmful effects of the consumption of pork, in
any form, be it pork chops,ham, bacon.
(sebenarnya , ada bahagian daripada Al-Quran melarang penggunaan daging khinzir ini. Malah dalam Bible sendiri dalam Leviticus, chapter 11,verse 8, berkaitan dengan daging khinzir ini, kata Bible "Pada daging khinzir itu, janganlah kamu makan, dan bangkainya jangan lah kamui sentuh , ia adalah tidak bersih untuk kamu. Tahukah juga kamu bahawa seekor khinzir tidak boleh disembelih pada lehernya kerana ia sendiri sebenarnya tidak mempunyai leher jika kita nak tengok dari anatomi semulajadinya. Bagi orang Muslim sekiranya khinzir itu boleh disembelih dan sesuai untuk keperluan manusia, maka Tuhan tentunya akan menjadikan khinzir itu mempunyai leher. Apapun, tanpa melihat pada
semua itu, saya yakin bahawa kamu tentu tahu betapa daging khinzir ini, walau dalam apa jua bentuk pun akan memberikan kesan yang merbahaya.)

Bob: The medical science finds that there is a risk for various diseases the pig is found to be a host for many parasites and potential diseases.
(Sains perubatan mendapati bahawa khinzir ini mrerupakan hos/perumah bagi pelbagai jenis parasit dan berisiko kepada terhadap pelbagai jenis penyakit)

Yunus: Yes, even apart from that, as we talked about uric acid content in the blood, it is important to note that the pig's biochemistry excretes only 2% of its total uric acid content, the remaining 98% remains as an integral part of the body.
(Ya, malah selain daripada itu sebagaimana kita berbincang mengenai kandungan asid urik dalam darah tadi, didapati khinzir hanya membuang 2% daripada kandungan asid uriknya
sebagai bahan kumuhan dan baki 98% lagi akan kekal sebagai sebahagian dari tubuhnya.)

Please forward to others............it may answer some of their questions especially when the non-Muslim ask. To waken interest and kindle enthusiasm is the sure way to teach easily and successfully.

"Pada hari itu manusia keluar dari kuburnya dalam keadaan bermacam-macam, supaya diperlihatkan kepada mereka (balasan) pekerjaan mereka. Barangsiapa mengerjakan kebaikan sebesar zarah pun, nescaya dia akan melihat balasan)nya pula. Dan barangsiapa yang mengerjakan kejahatan seberat zarah pun, nescaya dia akan melihat balasannya pula." (al Zalzalah:6-8)

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Monday, March 19, 2007

Malaysia today! 














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Sunday, March 18, 2007

:::THE FRAY::: How To Save A Life lyrics 

Artist: The Fray
Album: How To Save A Life
Year: 2005
Title: How To Save A Life Print



Step one you say we need to talk
He walks you say sit down it's just a talk
He smiles politely back at you
You stare politely right on through
Some sort of window to your right
As he goes left and you stay right
Between the lines of fear and blame
And you begin to wonder why you came

Where did I go wrong, I lost a friend
Somewhere along in the bitterness
And I would have stayed up with you all night
Had I known how to save a life

Let him know that you know best
Cause after all you do know best
Try to slip past his defense
Without granting innocence
Lay down a list of what is wrong
The things you've told him all along
And pray to God he hears you
And pray to God he hears you

Where did I go wrong, I lost a friend
Somewhere along in the bitterness
And I would have stayed up with you all night
Had I known how to save a life

As he begins to raise his voice
You lower yours and grant him one last choice
Drive until you lose the road
Or break with the ones you've followed
He will do one of two things
He will admit to everything
Or he'll say he's just not the same
And you'll begin to wonder why you came

Where did I go wrong, I lost a friend
Somewhere along in the bitterness
And I would have stayed up with you all night
Had I known how to save a life

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Friday, March 16, 2007

Technical Analysis - Grand Prix - Australia - Friday 16 March 2007 


BMW Sauber F1.07 - chassis & wing fins

Two horizontal fins (red arrow) have been added in Melbourne, midway up the side of the chassis. Shaped almost like an Arabian sword, the fins split the airflow coming out from the front wing, diverting it towards the sidepods inlets and, to an extent, the bargeboards. More fins (green arrow) have been placed inside the inner shields of the front wheel beneath the brake cooling ducts. Slightly curved, these help to reduce the turbulence generated in this area by the wheels' rotation, providing more aerodynamic stability.





Ferrari F2007 - rear wheelnut extension

Last season, Ferrari adopted shields to cover the rear wheel rims. These additions meant the mechanics could only access the wheels with their wheel guns through a small central hole. To improve the timing and precision of this operation, the F2007 has been fitted with a wheel nut extension, which enables the mechanics to fit the wheel gun onto the nut more easily. This modification has already improved the timings of the team's pit stops.




Renault R27 - rear view mirror pillars

The rear view mirrors on this car are housed in the uppermost section of the front sidepod winglets. During winter testing, rival teams trialling similar solutions complained about the mirror flexing too much when the car was in motion. Hence before Australia, Renault decided to adopt an additional pillar on each side (red arrow) to increase the stiffness of the assembly and hence reduce flexing under load.




McLaren MP4-22 - front cockpit 'ears'

Since the last Bahrain test session, two winglets have been added to the side of the front section of the chassis. Last season similar additions were used by Renault in a few races. These elements don't noticeably increase the downforce, instead they act as turning vanes, splitting the airflow directed towards the cockpit. They work in conjunction with the horn wings placed behind the cockpit and raise the quality of the airflow directed to the rear end of the car, hence improving overall aero efficiency.




Ferrari F2007 - rear wing & engine cover

This latest rear wing sports a double-sculpted main profile (lower arrow), with a much smaller flap that decreases in section at its extremities (upper arrow). The effect is raised rear downforce, without a noticeable increase in drag. This improves the car's overall aero balance, providing better handling, especially in the transition from fast to twisty sections of track. The engine cover is also slightly revised, its narrow 'shark fin' profile enhanced still further by a narrowing of the cover's base.




Renault R27 - revised sidepod winglets

Not a revolutionary change, recalling a similar solution adopted last season, but interesting in that now both the side of the vertical shield and the winglet elements feature two open slits, which help raise the air pressure in this area. They also assist in diverting airflow towards the outer edges of the car, reducing the turbulence generated by the rotation of the rear wheels.




Ferrari F2007 - revised sidepods

This series of changes is part of the aero package introduced at the recent Bahrain tests. They were developed to up aero efficiency while also assuring adequate engine cooling. The winglets (1) behind and connected to the chimneys now sport a single, rather than a double element, reducing drag. The cooling slits (2) are now asymmetrical in their layout, with the right sidepod featuring one less slit than the left. This will, of course, vary from race to race. Also asymmetrical is the positioning of the exhausts (3), with the one on the right slightly further forward than that on the left.




Nose-cone camera position

This is a small but important change for 2007. The camera housing is now placed on the top corner of the nose cone, where it acts as a proper winglet, diverting airflow around the front suspension's upper wishbone. Previously it was in the middle of the vertical side of the nose cone, where its position reduced the aero efficiency of the car's front end by affecting the airflow exiting off the front wing.





Engine analysis - Mercedes FO 108S

This engine displayed some worrying reliability problems right from the very start of last winter's early testing sessions. In fact, for much of January McLaren were obliged to run the MP4-21 in a hybrid configuration, using a modified version of the older V10. By the first race in Bahrain, the inner weaknesses of the V8 had seemingly been solved, but over the course of the season this proved not to be the case. As with the Toyota, the McLaren's problems weren't only engine related, but the need for several pre-race engine changes combined with a string of retirements helped prevent the team scoring a victory in 2006.







Engine analysis - Toyota RVX-06

A controversial engine in many ways. In previous seasons the engine has always been a strong point of the Toyota package, but this year it wasn't always so. The TF106 had weaknesses in several areas and the engine was certainly among them. It reportedly lacked top-end power, usually running lower revs than its rivals. The engine block, on the other hand, was one of the lightest - a potential advantage in terms of performance, but a potential risk in terms of reliability. This should not be considered a mistake on the part of engine designer Luca Marmorini, rather a reflection of his compliance with requests from Mike Gascoyne's chassis department to give them more freedom with weight distribution.





Engine analysis - Ferrari Type 056

Designed by Gilles Simon under the supervision of Paolo Martinelli, this engine was conceived as a reliable starting point not just for the 2006 season, but also for 2007. It may have lost two cylinders, but the new V8 was no lighter than its V10 predecessor, as Ferrari focussed on strengthening the inner mass of the engine to reduce the risk of possible weaknesses - even though in many ways the vibrations generated by a V8 are less disruptive than those of a V10. It represented a cautious start to the season, as Ferrari concentrated on issues with other parts of the car. However, they pushed hard on engine development later in the year, clearly increasing the revs, as well as paring away some of the weight. It didn't go entirely to plan, with Schumacher's engine failure at Suzuka costing him the race - and arguably the title.





Engine analysis - BMW P86

With the 2006 introduction of the 2.4 litre V8 rule, this engine was built from scratch, with its development then phased into three steps over the season. The aim was to start with a solid foundation and then gradually raise the revs. Specific figures for peak power and revs were not revealed, but the P86 was certainly very capable of high rpm. By the end of the year was generally considered the third most powerful engine, just behind Renault and Ferrari. The 20,000 rpm barrier was certainly broken, the optimum probably closer to 21,000.




Engine analysis - Renault RS26

The RS26 was the jewel in the Renault's crown. The basis for its design included all the things that were good about its V10 predecessor, the RS25, meaning the team weren't really starting from scratch, even if they were losing two cylinders. The concept was a reliable, fuel efficient engine, that wouldn't need to rev extraordinarily highly in order to be competitive. But Renault did have to modify its intended development path slightly, pushing things on towards the end of the season as Ferrari got closer and closer. They seemingly pushed too far at Monza, where Fernando Alonso's unit failed, and the team reined things in slightly for China and Japan - just by enough to avoid reliability problems and hence beat Ferrari.





Engine analysis - Honda RA806E

Honda's 2005 engine was one of the most powerful on the grid. That looked to have changed with their 2006 V8, which early in the season displayed lacklustre performance, with a definite lack of torque and acceleration. However, as is tradition with the Japanese maker, the engine was developed at each race, increasing maximum revs in search of top-end power while maintaining a wide rev range. It may not have been as light as the Toyota block, but the RA806E was still believed to weigh in at under 94 kilogrammes with its ancillaries. In the second half of the season, this, combined with a noticeable increase in power and refinements in the RA106's aerodynamics, helped make the Honda far more competitive.

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Monday, March 12, 2007

Hobi baru Presiden Amerika 
















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Sunday, March 11, 2007

WIMAX... what the hell is this? 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Wimax)


It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with IEEE 802.16. (Discuss)

WiMAX is defined as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access by the WiMAX Forum, formed in June 2001 to promote conformance and interoperability of the IEEE 802.16 standard, officially known as WirelessMAN. The Forum describes WiMAX as "a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL."

Uses
The bandwidth and reach of WiMAX make it suitable for the following potential applications:

-Connecting Wi-Fi hotspots with each other and to other parts of the Internet.
-Providing a wireless alternative to cable and DSL for last mile (last km) broadband access.
-Providing high-speed mobile data and telecommunications services.
-Providing a diverse source of Internet connectivity as part of a business continuity plan. That is, if a business has a fixed and a wireless internet connection, especially from unrelated providers, they are unlikely to be affected by the same service outage.
-Providing Nomadic connectivity.


Broadband Access
Many companies are closely examining WiMAX for "last mile" connectivity at high data rates. This could result in lower pricing for both home and business customers as competition lowers prices.

In areas without pre-existing physical cable or telephone networks, WiMAX may be a viable alternative for broadband access that has been economically unavailable. Prior to WiMAX, many operators have been using proprietary fixed wireless technologies for broadband services.

WiMAX subscriber units are available in both indoor and outdoor versions from several manufacturers. Self install indoor units are convenient, but the subscriber must be significantly closer to the WiMAX base station than with professionally installed units. As such, indoor installed units require a much higher infrastructure investment as well as operational cost (site lease, backhaul, maintenance) due to the high number of base stations required to cover a given area. Indoor units are comparable in size to a cable modem or DSL modem. Outdoor units allow for the subscriber to be much further away from the WiMAX base station, but usually require professional installation. Outdoor units are roughly the size of a textbook, and their installation is comparable to a residential satellite dish.

Limitations
A commonly held misconception is that WiMAX will deliver 70 Mbit/s, over 70 miles (112.6 kilometers). Each of these is true individually, given ideal circumstances, but they are not simultaneously true. In practice this means that in line-of-sight environments you could deliver symmetrical speeds of 10Mbps at 10km but in urban environments it is more likely that 30% of installations may be non-line-of-sight and therefore users may only receive 10Mbps over 2km. WiMAX has some similarities to DSL in this respect, where one can either have high bandwidth or long reach, but not both simultaneously. The other feature to consider with WiMAX is that available bandwidth is shared between users in a given radio sector, so if there are many active users in a single sector, each will get reduced bandwidth. However, unlike SDSL where contention is very noticeable at a 5:1 ratio (if you are sharing your connection with a large media firm for example), WiMAX does not have this problem. Typically each cell has a whole 100Mbps backhaul so there is no contention here. In practice, many users will have a range of 2-, 4-, 6-, 8- or 10Mbps services and the bandwidth can be shared. If the network becomes busy the business model is more like GSM or UMTS than DSL. It is easy to predict capacity requirements as you add customers and additional radio cards can be added on the same sector to increase the capacity.


Mobile applications
Some cellular companies are evaluating WiMAX as a means of increasing bandwidth for a variety of data-intensive applications; indeed, Sprint Nextel has announced in mid-2006 that it will be investing about US$ 3 billion in a WiMAX technology buildout over the next few years. [1]

In line with these possible applications is the technology's ability to serve as a high bandwidth "backhaul" for Internet or cellular phone traffic from remote areas back to an Internet backbone. Although the cost-effectiveness of WiMAX in a remote application will be higher, it is not limited to such applications, and may be an answer to reducing the cost of T1/E1 backhaul as well. Given the limited wired infrastructure in some developing countries, the costs to install a WiMAX station in conjunction with an existing cellular tower or even as a solitary hub are likely to be small in comparison to developing a wired solution. Areas of low population density and flat terrain are particularly suited to WiMAX and its range. For countries that have skipped wired infrastructure as a result of prohibitive costs and unsympathetic geography, WiMAX can enhance wireless infrastructure in an inexpensive, decentralized, deployment-friendly and effective manner.


Technical information
WiMAX is a term coined to describe standard, interoperable implementations of IEEE 802.16 wireless networks, in a rather similar way to Wi-Fi being interoperable implementations of the IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN standard. However, WiMAX is very different from Wi-Fi in the way it works.


MAC layer/ Data Link Layer
In Wi-Fi the media access controller (MAC) uses contention access — all subscriber stations that wish to pass data through a wireless access point (AP) are competing for the AP's attention on a random interrupt basis. This can cause subscriber stations distant from the AP to be repeatedly interrupted by closer stations, greatly reducing their throughput. This makes services such as Voice over IP (VoIP) or IPTV, which depend on an essentially constant Quality of Service (QoS) depending on data rate and interruptibility, difficult to maintain for more than a few simultaneous users.

In contrast, the 802.16 MAC uses a scheduling algorithm for which the subscriber station need compete once (for initial entry into the network). After that it is allocated an access slot by the base station. The time slot can enlarge and contract, but remains assigned to the subscriber station which means that other subscribers cannot use it. The 802.16 scheduling algorithm is stable under overload and over-subscription (unlike 802.11). It can also be more bandwidth efficient. The scheduling algorithm also allows the base station to control QoS parameters by balancing the time-slot assignments among the application needs of the subscriber stations.


Physical layer
The original WiMAX standard (IEEE 802.16) specified WiMAX for the 10 to 66 GHz range. 802.16a, updated in 2004 to 802.16-2004 (also known as 802.16d), added specification for the 2 to 11 GHz range. 802.16d (also known as "fixed" or "nomadic" WiMAX) was updated to 802.16e in 2005 (known as "mobile" WiMAX). and uses scalable orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) as opposed to the OFDM version with 256 sub-carriers used in 802.16d. More advanced versions including 802.16e also bring Multiple Antenna Support through Multiple-input multiple-output communications. This brings potential benefits in terms of coverage, self installation, power consumption, frequency re-use and bandwidth efficiency. 802.16e also adds a capability for full mobility support. The WiMAX certification allows vendors with 802.16d products to sell their equipment as WiMAX certified, thus ensuring a level of interoperability with other certified products, as long as they fit the same profile.

Most interest will probably be in the 802.16d and .16e standards, since the lower frequencies suffer less from inherent signal attenuation and therefore give improved range and in-building penetration. Already today, a number of networks throughout the World are in commercial operation using certified WiMAX equipment compliant with the 802.16d standard.


Advantages over Wi-Fi
The WiMAX specification provides symmetrical bandwidth over many kilometers and range with stronger encryption (3DES or AES) and typically less interference. Wi-Fi is short range (approximately 10's of meters), has WEP or WPA encryption, and suffers from interference as in metropolitan areas where there are many users.


WiMAX is focused on licensed spectrum. Availability varies by country: most available spectrum is in 2.3 Ghz-2.7 Ghz and 3.4-3.7 Ghz ranges. Efforts are underway for international roaming (WISOA). Total available spectrum varies from 40 to over 200 Mhz depending on regulations.


Wi-Fi Hotspots are typically backhauled over ADSL in most coffee shops therefore Wi-Fi access is typically highly contended and has poor upload speeds between the router and the internet.


It provides connectivity between network endpoints without the need for direct line of sight in favourable circumstances. The non-line-of-sight propagation (NLOS) performance requires the .16d or .16e revisions, since the lower frequencies are needed. It relies upon multi-path signals, somewhat in the manner of 802.11n.


Spectrum Allocations issues
The 802.16 specification applies across a wide swath of the RF spectrum. However, specification is not the same as permission to use. There is no uniform global licensed spectrum for WiMAX. In the US, the biggest segment available is around 2.5 GHz, and is already assigned, primarily to Sprint Nextel and Clearwire. Elsewhere in the world, the most likely bands used will be around 3.5 GHz, 2.3/2.5 GHz, or 5 GHz, with 2.3/2.5 GHz probably being most important in Asia. In addition, several companies have announced plans to utilize the WiMAX standard in the 1.7/2.1 GHz spectrum band recently auctioned by the FCC, for deployment of "Advanced Wireless Services" (AWS).

There is some prospect in the United States that some of a 700 MHz band might be made available for WiMAX use, but it is currently assigned to analog TV and awaits the complete rollout of digital TV before it can become available, likely by 2009. In any case, there will be other uses suggested for that spectrum if and when it actually becomes open.

It seems likely that there will be several variants of 802.16, depending on local regulatory conditions and thus on which spectrum is used, even if everything but the underlying radio frequencies is the same. WiMAX equipment will not, therefore, be as portable as it might have been - perhaps even less so than WiFi, whose assigned channels in unlicensed spectrum vary little from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.

The actual radio bandwidth of spectrum allocations is also likely to vary. Typical allocations are likely to provide channels of 5 MHz or 7 MHz. In principle the larger the bandwidth allocation of the spectrum, the higher the bandwidth that WiMAX can support for user traffic.

Standards
The current 802.16 standard is IEEE Std 802.16e-2005[2], approved in December 2005. It followed on from IEEE Std 802.16-2004[3], which replaced IEEE Standards 802.16-2001, 802.16c-2002, and 802.16a-2003.

IEEE Std 802.16-2004 (802.16d) addresses only fixed systems. 802.16e adds mobility components to the standard.


IEEE 802.16e
IEEE 802.16e-2005 (formally named, but still best known as, 802.16e or Mobile WiMAX) provides an improvement on the modulation schemes stipulated in the original (fixed) WiMAX standard. It allows for fixed wireless and mobile Non Line of Sight (NLOS) applications primarily by enhancing the OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access).

SOFDMA (Scalable OFDMA) improves upon OFDM256 for NLOS applications by

Improving NLOS coverage by utilizing advanced antenna diversity schemes, and hybrid-Automatic Retransmission Request (hARQ)

Increasing system gain by use of denser sub-channelization, thereby improving indoor penetration

Introducing high-performance coding techniques such as Turbo Coding and Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC), enhancing security and NLOS performance

Introducing downlink sub-channelization, allowing administrators to trade coverage for capacity or vice versa

Improving coverage by introducing Adaptive Antenna Systems (AAS) and Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) technology

Eliminating channel bandwidth dependencies on sub-carrier spacing, allowing for equal performance under any RF channel spacing (1.25-14 MHz)

Enhanced Fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm can tolerate larger delay spreads, increasing resistance to multipath interference


On the other hand, 802.16-2004 (fixed WiMAX) offers the benefit of available commercial products and implementations optimized for fixed access. Fixed WiMAX is a popular standard among alternative service providers and operators in developing areas due to its low cost of deployment and advanced performance in a fixed environment. Fixed WiMax is also seen as a potential standard for backhaul of wireless base stations such as cellular, WiFi or even mobile WiMAX.

SOFDMA and OFDM256 are not compatible so most equipment will have to be replaced. However, some manufacturers are planning to provide a migration path for older equipment to SOFDMA compatibility which would ease the transition for those networks which have already made the OFDM256 investment. This affects a relatively small number users and operators.

HIPERMAN
Similar to IEEE 802.16 is the European (ETSI) standard HIPERMAN. WiMAX and HIPERMAN are partially based on same IEEE standards.


WiBro
South Korea's electronics and telecommunication industry spearheaded by Samsung Electronics and ETRI has developed its own standard, WiBro. In late 2004, Intel and LG Electronics have agreed on interoperability between WiBro and WiMAX.

WiBro has South Korean government support with the requirement for each carrier to spend over US$1 billion for deployments. The Koreans sought to develop WiBro as a regional and potentially international alternative to 3.5G or 4G cellular systems. But given the lack of momentum as a standard, WiBro has joined WiMAX and agreed to harmonize with the similar OFDMA 802.16e version of the standard. What makes WiBro roll-outs a good 'test case' for the overall WiMAX effort is that it is mobile, well thought out for delivery of wireless broadband services, and the fact that the deployment is taking place in a highly sophisticated, broadband-saturated market. WiBro will go up against 3G and very high bandwidth wire-line services rather than as gap-filler or rural under-served market deployments as is often exampled as the 'best fit' markets for WiMAX.

Associations

WiMAX Forum

WiMAX Forum logo


The WiMAX Forum is the organization dedicated to certifying the interoperability of WiMAX products. Those that pass conformance and interoperability testing achieve the "WiMAX Forum Certified" designation and can display this mark on their products and marketing materials. Some vendors claim that their equipment is "WiMAX-ready", "WiMAX-compliant", or "pre-WiMAX", if they are not officially WiMAX Forum Certified. [1]





WiMAX Spectrum Owners Alliance - WiSOA

WiSOA logo


WiSOA is the first global organization composed exclusively of owners of WiMAX spectrum. WiSOA is focussed on the regulation, commercialisation, and deployment of WiMAX spectrum in the 2.3–2.5 GHz and the 3.4–3.5 GHz ranges. WiSOA are dedicated to educating and informing its members, industry representatives and government regulators of the importance of WiMAX spectrum, its use, and the potential for WiMAX to revolutionise broadband.[2]

Competing technologies



Within the marketplace, WiMAX's main competition comes from widely deployed wireless systems with overlapping functionality such as UMTS and CDMA2000, as well as a number of Internet oriented systems such as HIPERMAN and WiBro.



3G and 4G Cellular Phone Systems

Both of the two major 3G systems, CDMA2000 and UMTS, compete with WiMAX. Both offer DSL-class Internet access in addition to phone service. UMTS has also been enhanced to compete directly with WiMAX in the form of UMTS-TDD, which can use WiMAX oriented spectrum and provides a more consistent, if lower bandwidth at peak, user experience than WiMAX.

3G cellular phone systems usually benefit from already having entrenched infrastructure, being upgrades from earlier systems. Users can usually fall back to older systems when they move out of range of upgraded equipment, often relatively seamlessly.

The major cellular standards are being evolved to so-called 4G, high bandwidth, low latency, all-IP networks with voice services built on top. With GSM/UMTS, the move to 4G is the 3GPP Long Term Evolution effort. For AMPS/TIA derived standards such as CDMA2000, a replacement called Ultra Mobile Broadband is under development. In both cases, existing air interfaces are being discarded, in favour of OFDMA for the downlink and a variety of OFDM based solutions for the uplink. These will bring Internet access speeds comparable to, or better than, WiMAX.

In some areas of the world the wide availability of UMTS and a general desire for standardization has meant spectrum has not been allocated for WiMAX: in July 2005, the EU-wide frequency allocation for WiMAX was blocked. In September 2006, frequency bidding in Malaysia was stopped and any allocation of WiMAX has been suspended indefinitely.



Internet Oriented Systems

Early WMAN standards, the European standard HIPERMAN and Korean standard WiBro have been harmonized as part of WiMAX and are no longer seen as competition but as complementary. All networks now being deployed in South Korea, the home of the Wibro standard, are now WiMAX.



As a short-range mobile internet solution, such as in cafes and at transportation hubs like airports, the popular WiFi 802.11g system is widely deployed, and provides enough coverage for some users to feel subscription to a WiMAX service is unnecessary.



Notes: All speeds are theoretical maximums and will vary by a number of factors, including the use of external antennae, distance from the tower and the ground speed (i.e. communications on a train may be poorer than when standing still.) Usually the bandwidth is shared between several terminals. The performance of each technology is determined by a number of constraints, including the spectral efficiency of the technology, the cell sizes used, and the amount of spectrum available. For more information, see Comparison of wireless data standards.





Future developments and IEEE 802.20



MBWA is a technology developed by IEEE 802.20. It is the future technology standard for true wireless broadband or 4G and so far iBurst is the only pre-selected solution with over a dozen commercial deployments worldwide. IEEE 802,20 was established by IEEE as MBWA, Mobile Broadband Wireless Access for operation from 120 to 350 kph. The PAR was not for a broad mobile application. Since conception, the standard has been re-purposed as filling general requirements for NGMN. In so doing, 802.20 standard has taken on many of the methods of mobile WiMAX, including dynamic modulation up to 64 QAM and similar scalable OFDMA capabilities. It apparently retains fast hand-off, FEC and cell edge enhancements. But 802.20 is being shunned by ETSI 3GPP LTE, major network operators in North America and EU, and is unlikely to become broadly accepted. Compared to mobile WiMAX, the momentum has stalled. Mainstream of development efforts for both WiMAX and LTE have shifted to MIMO-AAS-OFDMA and SC-OFDM for LTE on the up-link.



The IEEE 802.20 working group resumed activity on 1 October 2006 after complaints by Intel (a supporter of the competing 802.16e standard) about approval procedure that has the backing of Kyocera and Qualcomm, the US cellular communications giant that acquired 802.20 developer Flarion Technologies in January. This followed questions of whether panel participants had disclosed their affiliations in a proper manner.http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/mbwa/email/pdf00015.pdf. The standard is expected to be finalized in Q1 2007. Attendance at the recent plenary session just met minimum requirements and the meeting was concluded one day earlier than scheduled.





Current Deployment


(Country by Country List)



The WiMAX Forum now lists over 250 WiMAX trials and deployments. Current and planned deployments and the bands in which they operate and the standards they use are listed in above article.





See also







Notes

  1. ^ WiMAX Forum — Frequently Asked Questions

  2. ^ WiSOA





Literature







External links






(1) comments

Saturday, March 10, 2007

Beyonce Knowles ::: Irreplaceable ::: 




to the left
to the left

to the left to the left
everything you own in the box to the left
in the closet, yes thats my stuff
yes, if I bought it, then please don't touch (don't touch)

and keep on talking that mess, thats fine
could you walk and talk, at the same time?
and- its my name thats on that bag
so go move your bags, let me call you a cab
standing in the front yard, telling me
how I'm such a fool, talking 'bout
how I'll never ever find a man like you

you got me twisted

you must not know 'bout me
you must not know 'bout me
I could have another you in a minute
matter fact, he'll be here in a minute (baby)

you must not know 'bout me
you must not know 'bout me
I'll have another you by tomorrow
so don't you ever for a second get to thinkin'
you're irreplaceable

so go ahead and get grown
call up that chick, and see if shes home
oops I bet you thought, that I didn't know
what did you think
I was putting you out for?
because you was untrue
rolling around in the car that I bought you
baby, drop them keys
hurry up, before your taxi leaves

standing in the front yard, telling me
how I'm such a fool, talking 'bout
how I'll never ever find a man like you

you got me twisted

you must not know 'bout me
you must not know 'bout me
I could have another you in a minute
matter fact, he'll be here in a minute (baby)

you must not know 'bout me
you must not know 'bout me
I'll have another you by tomorrow
so don't you ever for a second get to thinkin'
you're irreplaceable

so since I'm not your everything
how about I be nothing? nothing at all to you
baby i won't shed a tear for you
I won't lose a wink of sleep
cause the truth of the matter is
replacing you is so easy

to the left to the left
to the left to the left

mmmmmmmm
to the left to the left
everything you own in the box to left

to the left to the left
don't you ever for a second get to thinking
you're irreplaceable

you must not know 'bout me
you must not know 'bout me
I could have another you in a minute
matter fact, he'll be here in a minute (baby)

you must not know 'bout me
you must not know 'bout me
I'll have another you by tomorrow
so don't you ever for a second get to thinkin'

you must not know 'bout me
you must not know 'bout me
I could have another you in a minute
matter fact, he'll be here in a minute (baby)

you can pack all your things- we're finished
cause you made your bed now lay in it
I could have another you by tomorrow
don't you ever for a second get to thinkin'
you're irreplaceable

(0) comments

Justin Timberlake :::WHAT GOES AROUND COMES AROUND ::: 




Hey Girl
Is he everything you wanted in a man?
You know I gave you the world
You had me in the palm of your hand
So why your love went away
I just can't seem to understand
Thought it was me and you, baby
Me and you until the end
But I guess I was wrong

Don't wanna think about it(uh)
Don't wanna talk about it(uh)
I'm just so sick about it
I can't believe it's ending this way
Just so confused about it(uh)
Feeling the blues about it(yeah)
I just can't do without ya
Tell me is this fate

Is the way it's really going down?
Is this how we say goodbye?
Shoulda known better when you came around
That you were gonna make me cry
It's breaking my heart to watch you run around
Cause I know that you're living a lie
But that's ok, baby, cause in time you will find

What goes around, goes around, goes around, don't go away, back around
What goes around, goes around, goes around, don't go away, back around
What goes around, goes around, goes around, don't go away, back around
What goes around, goes around, goes around, don't go away, back around
Yeah

Now Girl
I remember everything that you claimed
You said that you were moving on now(on now)
Maybe I should do the same(maybe I should do the same)
The funny thing about that is
I was ready to give you my name
Thought it was me and you baby(baby)
And now, it's all just a shame
That I guess I was wrong

Don't wanna think about it(no)
Don't wanna talk about it(hm)
I'm just so sick about it
I can't believe it's ending this way
Just so confused about it(uh)
Feeling the blues about it(yeah)
I just can't do without ya
Can you tell me is this fate

Is the way it's really going down?
Is this how we say goodbye?
Shoulda known better when you came around
That you were gonna make me cry
Now it's breaking my heart to watch you run around
Cause I know that you're living a lie
But that's ok, baby, cause in time you will find

What goes around, goes around, goes around, don't go away, back around
What goes around, goes around, goes around, don't go away, back around
What goes around, goes around, goes around, don't go away, back around
What goes around, goes around, goes around, don't go away, back around
Yeah

What goes around comes around
Yeahhh
What goes around comes around
You should know that
What goes around comes around
Yeahhh
What goes around comes around
You should know that

Don't wanna think about it(no)
Don't wanna talk about it(hm)
I'm just so sick about it
I can't believe it's ending this way
Just so confused about it(uh)
Feeling the blues about it(yeah)
I just can't do without ya
Tell me is this fate

Is the way it's really going down?
Is this how we say goodbye?
Shoulda known better when you came around(shoulda known better)
That you were gonna make me cry
It's breaking my heart to watch you run around(now it's breaking my heart)
Cause I know that you're living a lie
But that's ok, baby, cause in time you will find

What goes around, goes around, goes around, don't go away, back around
(what goes around comes around, baby)
What goes around, goes around, goes around, don't go away, back around
(what goes around comes around, baby)
What goes around, goes around, goes around, don't go away, back around
What goes around, goes around, goes around, don't go away, back around
Yeah

Yup
Yup
Yup(let me paint this picture for ya, baby)
Yup

You spend your nights alone
And he never comes home
And everytime you call him, all you get is a busy tone
I heard you found out
That he's doing to you
What you did to me
Ain't that the way it goes
When you cheated, girl
My heart bleeded, girl
So it go without saying that should let the feeling hurt
Just a classic case scenario
Tell is always time
Girl, you got what you deserved
And now you want somebody
To cure the lonely nights
You wish you had somebody
That could come and make it right
But girl, I ain't somebody
I'm out of sympathy
See..

What goes around comes back around
I thought I told ya
Hey(hey)
What goes around comes back around
I thought I told ya
Hey(hey)
What goes around comes back around
I thought I told ya
Hey(hey)
What goes around comes back around
I thought I told ya
Hey(hey)

Take it to em, J

Hey, hey, hey, hey(repeatedly till the end)

Haha
See
You shoulda listened to me, baby
Take it to em, J
Because
What goes around comes back around
Hahahaha
Ooh
Ooh-ooh-ooh-ooh
Ooh
Ooh-ooh-ooh-ooh

(0) comments

Akon ::: I wanna love you ::: 



[Akon:] Convict...Music...and you know we a front.

[Chorus: Akon]
I see you windin n grindin up on that pole
I Know U See Me Lookin At You And You Already Know
I Wanna Love You, You Already Know
I Wanna Love You, You Already Know

[Snoop Dogg]
Money in the air as mo feel grad you by your coat tail take you to the motel, hoe sale,
dont tell, wont tell, baby said I dont talk dogg but she told on me, oh well,
take a picture wit me, what the flick gon do, baby stick to me & ima stick on u,
if u pick me then ima pick on you, d-o-double g and im here to put this dick on you,
I'm stuck on pussy n urs is right, wrip ridinin them poles and them doors is tight
and ima get me a shot for the end of the night cuz pussy is pussy and baby ur pussy for life.

[Chorus: Akon]
I see you windin n grindin up on that pole
I Know U See Me Lookin At You And You Already Know
I Wanna Love You, You Already Know
I Wanna Love You, You Already Know

[Akon]
Shorty I can see u aint lonely handfull of niggas n they all got cheese,
so u lookin at me now whats it gonna be just another tease far as I can see,
tryin get u up out this club if it means spendin' a couple dubs,
throwin bout 30 stacks in the back make it rain like that cuz I'm far from a scrub,
u kno my pedigree, ex-deala use to move phetamines,
girl I spend money like it dont mean nuthin n besides I got a thing for u.

[Chorus: Akon]
I see you windin n grindin up on that pole
I Know U See Me Lookin At You And You Already Know
I Wanna Love You, You Already Know
I Wanna Love You, You Already Know

[Snoop Dogg]
Mobbin' through club in low pressin im sittin in the back in the smokers section (just smokin),
birds eye, I got a clear view, you cant see me but I can see u (baby I see u),
its cool we jet the mood is set,
your pussy is wet u rubbin your back and touchin your neck,
ur body is movin' u humpin' n jumpin' ur titties is bouncin' u smilin' n grinin' n lookin at me.

[Akon]
Girl n while your looking at me im ready to hit the caddy right up on the patio move the patty to the caddy,
baby u got a phatty the type I like to marry wantin to just give u everythin n thats kinda scary,
cuz I'm lovin the way you shake your ass , bouncin', got me tippin' my glass,
lil' mully dont get caught up to fast but I got a thing for you.

[Chorus: Akon]
I see you windin n grindin up on that pole
I Know U See Me Lookin At You And You Already Know
I Wanna LoveYou, You Already Know
I Wanna Love You, You Already Know

[Chorus: Akon]
I see you windin n grindin up on that pole
I Know U See Me Lookin At You And You Already Know
I Wanna love You, You Already Know
I Wanna LoveYou, You Already Know

girl...

(0) comments

Friday, March 09, 2007

National Geographic picture of the day 



(0) comments

New graphene transistor promises life after death of silicon chip 

Researchers have used the world's thinnest material to create the world's smallest transistor - a breakthrough that could spark the development of a new type of super-fast computer chip.
Professor Andre Geim and Dr Kostya Novoselov from The School of Physics and Astronomy at The University of Manchester, reveal details of transistors that are only one atom thick and less than 50 atoms wide, in the March issue of Nature Materials.

They believe this innovation will allow the rapid miniaturisation of electronics to continue when the current silicon-based technology runs out of steam.

In recent decades, manufacturers have crammed more and more components onto integrated circuits. As a result, the number of transistors and the power of these circuits has roughly doubled every two years. This has become known as Moore's Law.

But the speed of cramming is now noticeably decreasing, and further miniaturisation of electronics is to experience its most fundamental challenge in the next ten to 20 years, according to the semiconductor industry roadmap.

Two years ago, Professor Andre Geim and his colleagues discovered a new class of materials that can be viewed as individual atomic planes pulled out of bulk crystals.

These one-atom-thick materials and particularly graphene - a gauze of carbon atoms resembling a chicken wire - have rapidly become one of the hottest topics in physics.

The first graphene-based transistor was reported by The University of Manchester team at the same time as the discovery of graphene, and other groups have recently reproduced the result (1).

But these graphene transistors were very 'leaky' (2), which has limited possible applications and ruled out important ones, such as their use in computer chips and other electronic circuits with a high density of transistors.

Now the Manchester team has found an elegant way around the problem and made graphene-based transistors suitable for use in future computer chips.

Professor Geim - who is Director of The Manchester Centre for Mesoscience & Nanotechnology - and his colleagues have shown for the first time that graphene remains highly stable and conductive even when it is cut into strips of only a few nanometres (3) wide.

All other known materials - including silicon - oxidise, decompose and become unstable at sizes tens times larger.

This poor stability of these materials has been the fundamental barrier to their use in future electronic devices - and this has threatened to limit the future development of microelectronics.

"We have made ribbons only a few nanometres wide and cannot rule out the possibility of confining graphene even further - down to maybe a single ring of carbon atoms," says Professor Geim.

The research team suggests that future electronic circuits can be carved out of a single graphene sheet. Such circuits would include the central element or 'quantum dot', semitransparent barriers to control movements of individual electrons, interconnects and logic gates - all made entirely of graphene.

Geim's team have proved this idea by making a number of single-electron-transistor devices that work under ambient conditions and show a high-quality transistor action.

"At the present time no technology can cut individual elements with nanometre precision. We have to rely on chance by narrowing our ribbons to a few nanometres in width," says Dr Leonid Ponomarenko, who is leading this research at The University of Manchester. "Some of them were too wide and did not work properly whereas others were over-cut and broken."

But Dr Ponomarenko is optimistic that this proof-of-concept technique can be scaled up.

"To make transistors at the true-nanometre scale is exactly the same challenge that modern silicon-based technology is facing now. The technology has managed to progress steadily from millimetre-sized transistors to current microprocessors with individual elements down to tens nanometres in size.

"The next logical step is true nanometre-sized circuits and this is where graphene can come into play because it remains stable - unlike silicon or other materials - even at these dimensions."

Professor Geim does not expect that graphene-based circuits will come of age before 2025. Until then, silicon technology should remain dominant.

But he believes graphene is probably the only viable approach after the silicon era comes to an end.

"This material combines many enticing features from other technologies that have been considered as alternatives to the silicon-based technology.

"Graphene combines most exciting features from carbon-nanotube, single-electron and molecular electronics, all in one."

Notes to editors

(1) See Georgia Tech (http://gtresearchnews.gatech.edu/newsrelease/graphene.htm) and AMO (http://www.physorg.com/news90170453.html) for details.

(2) Electrical flow could not be turned off to zero. The so called on-off ratios were 30 or less.

(3) One nanometre is one-millionth of a millimetre and a single human hair is around 80,000 nanometres in width.

A Progress Article entitled 'The rise of graphene' is published in the March issue of Nature Materials. A copy of the article is available on request.

For more information please contact Alex Waddington, Media Relations Officer on 0161 306 3983 or alex.waddington@manchester.ac.uk.

Professor Geim is available for interview but only via email or telephone. He can be emailed directly on geim@manchester.ac.uk.

Photographs of Professor Geim are available, along with an image of single-electron transistors carved entirely in a graphene sheet, and also an image of a chip containing a graphene-transistor operational under ambient conditions.

(0) comments

James Allen's verdict on 2007 Formula One 

To kick off our extensive preview to the new Formula 1 season, ITV Sport commentator James Allen gives you his predictions on the likely protagonists in the battle for the 2007 crown.

As we head into the first year since 1991 without Michael Schumacher, F1 has a brand new look and an exciting feel to it, and James, just like the rest of us, can't wait to go racing.


I am beside myself with excitement about the new season of Formula 1, which is about to start.


We have so much to shout about:


- Two top class drivers - Kimi Raikkonen and Fernando Alonso, going for the title
- Two rookies in potentially race winning cars - Lewis Hamilton and Heikki Kovalainen,
- Four British drivers - Lewis Hamilton, Jenson Button, David Coulthard and Anthony Davidson
- Some very exciting new talent elsewhere in probably the most competent field of teams F1 has ever assembled, particularly Robert Kubica and Adrian Sutil.


The level of technical ability down the pit lane is tremendous nowadays.


I remember not so long ago, when I was spending a lot of time in the USA, thinking that teams like Newman/Haas and Penske could fit in as midfield runners in F1, but now they have been left miles behind by the sheer sophistication of F1 engineering.


There is no longer a team like Minardi running a four-year-old chassis, everyone has state-of-the-art equipment and top quality engines, the differences between them are very slight and in most cases are budget related.


The contenders


Anyway, my brief is to look in detail at the battle for the championship, so let’s take a look at how it is shaping up.


Pre-season testing has gone well for both Ferrari and McLaren and I expect them to be the main protagonists this year.


A lot of people are shouting about BMW, others are saying ‘Don’t forget Renault’, but from my own experience of the testing and from speaking to colleagues who cover every test, Ferrari and McLaren are out front.


BMW have definitely moved forward, while Renault have slipped back a little.


Honda finished 2006 on a high and have disappointed so far, but I would still be surprised if they weren’t regulars on the podium later this year.


In the red corner


I think that Kimi will win the title this year. Ferrari were on a very high level, if you recall, at the end of last season.


They have the advantage of the in-depth knowledge of Bridgestone and they appear to be using it well.


Also their definitive bodywork, which ran for the first time in Bahrain, looks very promising. It’s fairly clear that they have the fastest car out there both on a single lap and on long runs, so Raikkonen and Felipe Massa have the edge as we head for Melbourne, a track where Ferrari has won for five of the past eight years.


Raikkonen had a few problems settling in to the winter testing and he has been shaded on lap times by Massa, but this is because he has not wanted to show Massa how quick he is.


It’s only testing and race weekends are a totally different matter.


F1 is, above all, a head game and Raikkonen is stronger in the head than Massa, so I expect him to come out on top.


But the pint-sized Brazilian showed some real character last year and he is backed by the Todt family, which is uniquely valuable.


If you think back to last year, Ferrari went out of their way to make Massa look good last year and if I were Kimi I'd have a slight concern about that..


Missing links


If there is a question mark about Ferrari it is the way they will go racing without Ross Brawn at the helm.


He had such a massive influence over their operations, his composure, wisdom and ruthlessness gave them so much confidence as a racing team.


I think he is harder to replace than Michael Schumacher.


Having a fast car is one thing, but making sure you use it to get the results is another and I’m not sure about Brawn’s understudies who have been promoted in his absence.


They may prove me wrong.


You’ll hear a lot of racing people say that the winning is done at the factory, but in my experience it’s also vital to be sharp when you are at the race track.


Make a few bad calls on tyre choice or pit strategy and the confidence can soon sap away.


The challengers


Over at McLaren things have gone very well this winter.


They have adapted better than their Michelin rivals to the new Bridgestone tyres and their new car has been fast and fairly reliable in testing.


McLaren’s reliability record in the past few seasons has been poor and it is something Alonso was clearly concerned about. But he has looked very happy recently.


The car still occasionally breaks during tests, but they are nevertheless getting a big mileage done, so the signs are encouraging. I think one key factor on their side this year is the engine.


It’s been seven years since the Mercedes was the benchmark engine in F1, but they’ve definitely hit the jackpot with this motor.


McLaren’s record in improving and developing its cars is excellent, so I expect them to be right on Ferrari’s pace certainly by Barcelona and maybe sooner.


Then it will be a straight fight between Alonso and Raikkonen, which is what we all want to see.


There should be some big, big days in 2007. Alonso will have to play the percentage game in the early races, scoring podiums and hoping that Massa takes points off Raikkonen.


Dream drive


The crucial thing to understand about Alonso is that McLaren is the team he dreamed of racing for when he was a kid.


According to my opposite number at Spanish TV, who has known Fernando for years, whenever he won anything in karting he used to say, “Has Ron Dennis been on the phone?”


So he is where he has always wanted to be and you cannot underestimate the value of that. The same is true of course of Lewis Hamilton.


Lewis will carry a lot of expectation this season, but let me lower those expectations right now.


He is a 22 year old rookie. If you go back and look at Schumacher’s or Ayrton Senna’s first 17 GPs, you will see some brilliant performances of course, but also some high profile mistakes.


This was especially true with Senna, who took some time before he was ‘in control’. Hamilton will be no different.


He will bin it while in a promising position, he will make mistakes which will be painfully public, but the good thing about him is that he’s not afraid to make mistakes and he will never stop learning.


McLaren will not put pressure on him and he will be allowed to grow as a driver.


The target from his point of view, for 2007 is to learn what the sharp end of F1 looks like and, being able to measure himself directly with the best driver around, he will know exactly where he has to get to in order to win.


By the by

A couple of things to watch out for this year; with only four types of tyre available for the whole season and two of them having to be used at every race, there are bound to be races where the tyres aren’t well suited to the track.


On those days the difference between the good cars and the average cars will be bigger, so in other words I think you will see some weekends where everyone is quite close (because the tyres work for everyone) and others when Ferrari and maybe McLaren are miles in front.


(0) comments

Thursday, March 08, 2007

Beyonce Knowles ::: LISTEN::: 



[Verse 1:]
Listen
To the song here in my heart
A melody I start but can't complete
Listen
To the sound from deep within
It's only begginnig to find release

[Pre - Chorus 1:]
Oh the time has come
For my dreams to be heard
They will not be pushed aside and turned
Into your own all 'cause you won't listen

[CHORUS:]
Listen
I am alone at a crossroads
I'm not at home in my own home
And I've tried and tried to say what's on my mind
You should have known
Oh now I'm done believing you
You don't know what I'm feeling
I'm more than what you made of me
I followed the voice you gave to me
But now I've got to find my own

[Verse 2:]
You should have listened
There is someone here inside
Someone I thought had died so long ago

[Pre - Chorus 2:]
Oh I'm screaming out
And my dreams will be heard
They will not be pushed aside or worse
bent to your own all 'cause you won't listen

[CHORUS]

[Bridge:]
I don't know where I belong
But I'll be moving on
If you don't
If you won't

[CHORUS 2:]
Listen
To the song here in my heart
A melody I start and I will complete
Oh now I'm done believing you
You don't know what I'm feeling
I'm more than what you made of me
I followed the voice you think you gave to me
But now I've got to find my own
My own...

(0) comments

Wednesday, March 07, 2007

Women are best at being buddies 

A four-year study by sociologists at The University of Manchester has found that women are much more likely than men to make deep and lasting friendships. The investigation into social networks by the University's Research Centre for Socio-Cultural Change found that men are more fickle and calculating about who they should be friends with.

Women on the other hand, stand by their friends through thick and thin. Adding to the bad news for male prestige, the study confirms the stereotype that men are likely to base their friendship on social drinking.

Of the 10,000 individuals studied who took part in the 1992 to 2002 British Household Panel Surveys, women are much more likely to stay with the same friends.

Single people, older people and white collar workers are also good at paring up. Middle class people are more likely to cast their net of friendship far wider, whereas the working class tend to stick to their own kind.

Dr Gindo Tampubolon said the findings on female friendship were doubly significant because the data suggests we are much more likely socialise with people from our own gender - 75 per cent of best friends were with the same sex.

Dr Tampubolon, who is based at the School of Social Sciences, said: "Friendship between women seems to be fundamentally different to friendship between men.

"It's much deeper and more moral: it's about the relationship itself rather than what they can get out of it.

"Women tend to keep their friends through thick and thin across geography and social mobility.

"And women's view of friendship has something to do with how they express themselves and form their identity.

"Men, on the other hand are more fickle with their relationships and seem more interested in 'what's in it for me'".

He added: "The findings reflect our view that friendship is not a choice. We have contact with friends, family, neighbourhood and work which we are or are not able to turn into friendships.

"Middle class people are more adept at doing this and tend to define friendship more widely such as work, family and the pub.

"Working class people, on the other hand, are more limited: they're likely to form a best friend with another working class person."

Professor of Sociology Mike Savage said: "This research draws upon a tradition of inquiry known as social network analysis, developed by Professor John Barnes who was based here at the Victoria University of Manchester in 1952-1953.

"SNA is able to analyse social structures using a series of algorithms and we wanted explore its application in this area and others.

"It is now used widely by business including the Google search engine and Amazon's recommendations page.

"SNA is very relevant to the work of Harvard University's Professor Robert Putnam, and should inform our recently announced collaboration with Harvard on social change."

NOTES FOR EDITORS
For more details, visit
http://www.cric.ac.uk/cric/projects/socialnetwork/

Dr Tampubolon is available for comment

For more details contact:
Mike Addelman
Media Relations Officer
Faculty of Humanities
The University of Manchester
0161 275 0790
07717 881567
michael.addelman@manchester.ac.uk


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Tuesday, March 06, 2007

Suatu hari di Eye on Malaysia... 
















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